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About Citrus

About Citrus

What is Citrus ?

Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast Asia,China is one of important original centers. The word citrus is derived from the Ancient Greek kedros or its Latin derivate cedrus, names applied by the ancient Greeks and Romans to several different trees with fragrant foliage or wood (compare the completely unrelated cedars). The taxonomy and systematics of the genus are complex and the precise number of natural species is unclear, as many of the named species are clonally-propagated hybrids, and there is genetic evidence that even some wild, true-breeding species are of hybrid origin. Cultivated Citrus may be derived from as few as four ancestral species. Natural and cultivated origin hybrids include commercially important fruit such as the sweet oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes (sour oranges) and tangerines.

Slices of various citrus fruits

What ingredients exist in Citrus ?

Different citrus species contain different chemical ingredients or different content of ingredients.
1.Sour oranges (Citrus aurantium)
Sour orange contains hesperidin,neohesperidin,naringin,synephrine,N-methyltyramine. Immature fruit contains naringin,rhoifolin,lonicerin,neohesperidin. Neohesperidin disappears while fruit matures. The peel also contains nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3’,4’-hexamethoxy flavone),hesperidin,tangeritin (5,6,7,8, 4’-pentamethoxy flavone), 5,7,4’-trimethoxy flavone,sinensitin (5,6,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxy flavone),5,7,8,4’-tetramethoxy flavone. The seed contains limonoids such as ichangin,deacetyl nomilin,limonin,nomilin,obacunone,deacetylnomilinic acid,isolimonic acid,nomilinic acid and their 17-β-D- glucoside,also contains  19-hydroxydeacetylnomilinic acid-17-β-D- glucoside.

2. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis)
Sweet orange contains naringenin-7-ruti-noside,that’s narirutin,isosaku-ranetin-7-rutinoside),eriocitrin,naringenin-4’-glucoside-7-rutinoside,synephrine,N-methyltyramine. The peel contains hesperidine,naringin,citrusin A,B,C, coniferin,syringin,dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside,2”-O-β-xylosylvitexin,3-hydroxy-5,6,7,8,3’,4’-hexamethoxyflavone-3β-glucoside,that’s nobiletin-3-O-β-glucoside, 3,8-di-C-glucosylapigenin, 3,8-di-C-glucosyldiosmetin,trans-carveol-6β-glucopyranoside, a-terpineol-8-β-D-glucopyranoside, 9-hydroxylinalool-9-β-glucopyranoside, vomifoliol-9-O-β-D- glucopyranoside and narirutin so on. Also contains tangeritin, nobiletin, 5,7,4’-trimethoxy flavone, 5,7,3’4’-tetramethoxy flavone and 5,7,8,3’4’-pentamethoxy flavone, citrusin Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ.

3. Citrus Reticulata
Citrus Reticulata contains hesperidin,naringin,neohesperidin,poncirin,palmitic acid,stearoc acid,oleic acid,linoleic acid,linolenic acid,synephrine, N-methyltyramine. Immature fruit contains poncimarin,iso-poncimarin,7-geranyloxycoumarin(aurapten),6-methyoxyaurapten,bergapten, imperatorin. The seed contains isopimpinellin,prangenin(heraclenin),prangeninhydrate, bergapten, imperatorin, aurapten,6-methyoxyaurapten and limonoids such as limonin, deacetyl nomilin, ichangin, deacetyl nomilinic acid and isolimonic acid.

4.Peels of citrus fruits
Of course,the peels of fruit also contain a-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, camphene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene,caryophyllene,linalool and so on.

How people use these ingredients?

Seven following disease categories had a statistically significant number of areas for reported uses of citrus ingredients: (1) diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs;(2) diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue;(3) diseases of the respiratory system;(4) diseases of the endocrine systems;(5) nutritional, metabolic diseases and immunity disorders;(6) infectious and parasitic diseases;(7) injury and poisoning; symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions.

Recent research has focused on the biological activity of compounds found in citrus species, including compounds called flavanoids, carotenoids and limonoids, especially in terms of their effects on citrus palatability and anti-cancer activity.

Citrus flavonoids have potential antioxidant (prevents aging), anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory activities, effects on capillarity, and cholesterol-lowering ability. The principal carotenoids in pink grapefruit are lycopene and beta-carotene. Lycopene-containing fruits and vegetables have been shown to contribute to a significant reduction in prostate and mammary cancer risk.Recent studies have further shown that limonoids inhibit the development of cancer in laboratory animals and in human breast cancer cells as well as reducing cholesterol.
And essential oil from citrus peels are largely used in food industry as a flavor and fragrance.

Different citrus fruits

Warning:

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product.